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ANMM Collection Reproduced courtesy of John Parkin

HM BARK ENDEAVOUR, Endeavour River 1770

Date: 1976
Overall: 120 x 158 x 1 mm
Medium: Ink on paper
Credit Line: ANMM Collection Gift from Charlie and Rose Hamand
Object Copyright: © John Parkin
Object Name: Engraving
Object No: 00046501

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    HMB ENDEAVOUR became famous after it was commanded by Captain James Cook in the Pacific between 1768 and 1771. ENDEAVOUR landed at Botany Bay in 1770, later prompting the Admiralty to send the First Fleet there in 1778. During the voyage the ENDEAVOUR struck a Coral reef off the coast. This etching depicts events on 18 June 1770 when the ENDEAVOUR reached the beach where the crew took refuge and set up camp to repair the vessel. Cook later named the river the Endeavour River.

    Ray Parkin produced many detailed illustrations of the ship, charts of the coastline surveyed during the journey and plans of the ships layout along with maps and charts tracing Cooks voyages. These were included in his detailed historical account titled H.M. BARK ENDEAVOUR, first published in 1997 and awarded the Premier's Prize for Non-Fiction in 1999.

    SignificanceThis etching is of interest for its detailed depiction of HMB ENDEAVOUR at the entrance to the Endeavour River in June of 1770. It demonstrates the work of Ray Parkin. His etchings of HMB ENDEAVOUR illustrate events that took place during the ships first momentous voyage.
    HistoryThe first voyage in which Cook commanded HM Bark ENDEAVOUR arrived in Tahiti to view the Transit of Venus. The Royal Society of London petitioned King George III for a ship to be sent to view the planet's transit across the sun, due to take place on 3 June 1769. Cook then sailed south, where in October 1769 he reached New Zealand, as 'discovered' by Abel Tasman in 1642. After mapping both the north and south islands, it was clear this was not the Great South Land and he started on the journey home. It was during this voyage that Cook first approached eastern Australia. An attempt to land on 28 April 1770 failed due to rough surf so Cook sailed ENDEAVOUR round to a calm bay which is now known as Botany Bay. Here on 29 April 1770, Cook and his crew first set foot on Australian soil. In accordance with the expedition's scientific purpose a number of samples of flora and fauna were collected, while drawings of the coast and specimens were produced. Cook's voyage continued north along the coast, on the evening of 11 June 1770 the vessel struck a coral reef (the Great Barrier Reef) and narrowly avoided being wrecked. Due to king tides off the far east coastline, it took twenty-four hours to relfoat the vessel and days until the ENDEAVOUR was able to be beached for repairs.

    Cook described the events that took place on 18 June 1770 in his journal 'At 1pm the Ship floated and we warped her into the Harbour and moored alongside of a Steep beach on the south side. Got the anchors and cables and All the Hawsers [six hawsers: Wilkinson] ashore. In the AM made a stage from the Ship to the shore; erected two tents from one for the Sick and the other for Stores and Provisions; landed all the empty casks and part of the Provisions; and sent a boat to haul to the scene who returned without success.'

    Cook and his crew eventually returned home in July 1771 with many botanical specimens and reports of their encounters with the Indigenous peoples they met. This voyage up the east coast of Australia in 1770, ultimately led to European settlement in 1788.

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