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Hygiene exercise book belonging to Lily Knapton

Date: March 1917
Overall: 240 x 183 x 10 mm, 0.017 kg
Medium: Ink on paper, cotton
Credit Line: ANMM Collection Gift from Gary McPherson
Classification:Books and journals
Object Name: Book
Object No: 00028050
Place Manufactured:Australia

User Terms

    This school exercise book belonged to Lily Knapton, who migrated to Australia with her mother on SS RUNIC in 1909. The book is covered in a brown paper sleeve and is titled Hygiene. It contains arithmetic tables and sections on hygiene and housewifery.
    SignificanceThis book reveals fascinating details about social conditions, education and gender roles in the British Empire at the turn of the century. It provides a valuable record of a young English migrant's voyage and subsequent settlement in Australia in the early 20th century.
    HistoryThe Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was the first major piece of legislation passed by Australia's new federal parliament. The Act placed certain restrictions on immigration and reflected the government's desire to build a white Australia.

    The government's preference was for immigrants from Britain and it offered cheap fares to attract them to Australia. Many Britons saw emigration as a chance to find work and establish a new life.

    In 1909 eight-year-old Lily Knapton and her mother departed Liverpool on the White Star liner SS RUNIC. They were migrating to Australia to join Lily's father, who was working as a tailor in Melbourne, Victoria. From 1901 to 1930 RUNIC operated a regular migrant service from Liverpool to Sydney.

    Lily brought her favourite toys, clothes and school books with her. She kept them all her life as souvenirs of her former life in Britain and her childhood voyage on SS RUNIC.
    Additional Titles


    Web title: Hygiene exercise book belonging to Lily Knapton

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