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The Progress of Steam Navigation

Date: 16 January 1858
Dimensions:
Overall: 400 x 550 mm, 10 g
Medium: Ink on paper
Credit Line: ANMM Collection
Classification:Ephemera
Object Name: Engraving
Object No: 00019732
Place Manufactured:United Kingdom

User Terms

    Description
    This engraving from the Illustrated London News is a collage of vessels representing the development of steam ships. In the centre of the image is the LEVIATHAN (later renamed GREAT EASTERN) which is shown afloat and surrounded by a flotilla of vessels, despite not being sucessfully launched until later that month. Around the LEVIATHAN are 16 smaller illustrations of vessels, captioned GT WESTERN, ENTERPRISE, Screw Gun Boat, Margate Steamer, HOGUE, Steamer RICHMOND, DUNDAS 1802, ARCHIMEDES 1839, GREAT BRITAIN, UNITED KINGDOM, Royal Fairy Yacht, First War Steamer, MARLBOROUGH, COMET, First Steam Boat, and R F STOCKTON 1839.
    SignificanceThis newspaper engraving reflects the public interest in and celebration of the design and construction of the colossal passenger and cargo steamship GREAT EASTERN. Although designed to serve on the England - Australia run, the GREAT EASTERN was used only for trans-Atlantic trade and cable laying. Despite being considered a commercial failure as a passenger ship, the GREAT EASTERN was a milestone in 19th-century steam navigation and iron shipbuilding.
    HistoryIn 1858 when the 18,914-ton GREAT EASTERN was launched, it was the world’s largest iron ship. At a time when the largest ships on the seas were less than 5,000 tons, the GREAT EASTERN was a colossal vessel designed to carry 4,000 passengers along with 6,000 tons of cargo to Australia without the need to re-coal.

    Designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the five-funnelled six-masted ship featured side-paddles and a screw propeller, and was built by Scott Russell & Co Ltd at Millwall on the River Thames between 1854 and 1858. The screw engines by James Watt & Co were built at the Soho Foundry at Smethwick, England in 1857.

    The third of Brunel's ‘great ships’ (after the GREAT WESTERN and the GREAT BRITAIN), the GREAT EASTERN was unique as the first ship to incorporate a steering engine and was designed with a double cellular hull. Despite a myriad of technical and financial difficulties during construction, the ship was eventually launched in January 1858 and fitted out at Deptford. During trials in September 1859, a heater attached to the paddle engine boilers exploded killing several men and damaging the forward funnel and grand saloon.

    In 1860 the GREAT EASTERN made its first trans-Atlantic run, and was promoted by a series of public exhibits and port visits along the United States east coast. In 1864, the GREAT EASTERN was sold for a fraction of its cost to a cable-laying company and it was used to lay the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. Between 1865 and 1874 the ship laid and repaired telegraph cables across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

    The GREAT EASTERN was then laid up at Milford Haven for the next 12 years, until it was used as a fairground and floating advertising billboard off the coast at Liverpool. It was sold for scrap in 1888, and in early 1889 the mammoth task of deconstruction began on the banks of the River Mersey.
    Additional Titles

    Primary title: THE PROGRESS OF STEAM NAVIGATION

    Web title: The Progress of Steam Navigation

    Related People
    Engraver: W Thomas

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