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Nouvelle-Hollande, Nouvelle Galles du Sud, Navigation

Date: 1807
Dimensions:
Overall: 238 x 300 mm
Medium: Ink on paper
Credit Line: ANMM Collection
Classification:Art
Object Name: Engraving
Object No: 00001136
Related Place:Australia,

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    Description
    An engraving titled 'Nouvelle-Hollande: Nelle Galles du Sud. Navigation. Les oiseaux qui courent a la surface des eaux sont des cygnes noirs. L'arbre au pied duguel se trouvent deux sauvages, est un casuarina; tous les autres sont des eucalyptus' ('The birds which run along the surface of the water are black swans. The wood of the canoe in which we find the two savages is Casuarina; all the other trees are Eucalyptus'].
    It is plate XXIII from 'Voyage de Decouvertes aux Terres Australes ... Partie Historique' by Francois Peron, the account of Captain Nicolas Baudin's expedition.
    Peron became synomous with Nicolas Baudin's expedition to Australia in 1800 as it was he and not Baudin (who died on the journey home) who wrote of the voyage in his book 'Voyage de Decouvertes aux Terres Australes'.
    SignificanceFrancois Peron was a highly skilled zoologist and keen observer of all things scientific. His passion extended to the new fields of oceanography and ethnography, his findings being a highlight of the Baudin expedition. Although today he is criticised for his harsh treatment of Baudin once Peron returned to France, his contributions to the early recordings of Australian fauna and Australian Indigenous communities on the south east coast of Tasmania, remain significant achievements.
    HistoryNicolas Baudin sailed from France in October 1800 in command of the ships LE GEOGRAPHE and LA NATURALISTE on a scientific expedition to Australia. Baudin had previously served in the merchant marine, the French Navy (during the American War of Independence), the French East India Company and in the service of the Austro-Hungarian Emperor, Joseph II. He had established a good reputation as an amateur naturalist after returning from Puerto Rico with a splendid collection of natural history specimens in 1797.

    Based on the success of the Puerto Rico expedition, Baudin proposed a scientific expedition to New Holland. In addition to achieving the scientific objectives of the expedition, Baudin planned to survey parts of the Australian coast - particularly those areas that were still poorly charted. The great French explorer Louis-Antoine de Bougainville was an influential supporter of the expedition and his son, Hyacinthe de Bougainville, served as a midshipman aboard LE GEOGRAPHE. Command of the LA NATURALISTE was by Lt. Cdr. Jacques-Felix Hamelin.

    Although Baudin had been given overall command, he had had little control over the selection of the scientists and many of the officers; shipboard tensions that subsequently arose during the voyage were exacerbated by the expedition's slow passage from France to Mauritius. Morale plummeted and consequently several disaffected officers left the expedition at Mauritius.

    In May 1801 the expedition reached Cape Leeuwin in Western Australia. Baudin's instructions were to sail south to Tasmania, but with winter approaching, he chose instead to commence surveying north along the west Australian coast - discovering and naming Geographe Bay in the process. The GEOGRAPHE and NATURALISTE separated and Hamelin undertook a survey of Shark Bay, with the two ships arranging to reunite in Timor.

    In November 1801 the expedition sailed south into the Indian Ocean and then east towards Van Diemen's Land (Tasmania) arriving there in January 1802. Over the next three months the expedition surveyed much of Bass Strait and the south coast of Australia.

    Baudin's survey coincided with that of Matthew Flinders in HMS INVESTIGATOR; an encounter between the two expeditions took place on 8 April 1802 at a place now named Encounter Bay. Although Flinders' charts have come to be accepted as the more detailed and accurate of the two, Baudin's work was published three years prior to Flinders' and offered the first comprehensive surveys of the Australian coastline.

    Baudin's period in Tasmania produced a wealth of new geographical and anthropological information; the expedition's scientists, particularly Peron, collected an abundance of natural history specimens and also made important observations and records documenting indigenous Tasmanians (Peron produced a study of the Aborigines of Maria Island).

    During the survey the GEOGRAPHE and NATURALISTE had mainly acted independently of each other, but in 1802 Port Jackson was chosen as a place for a rendezvous. At Port Jackson Baudin purchased a smaller vessel, the locally-built CASUARINA, to replace the slow and cumbersome NATURALISTE which was sent home early to France. De Freycinet was given command of the CASUARINA.

    During the following year the expedition surveyed more of Bass Strait, King George's Sound, and the north coast of New Holland around Bathurst and Melville islands.

    In August 1803 the expedition returned to Mauritius where Baudin died on 16 September 1803. As a result of Baudin's death, the expedition's charts were produced by Louis de Freycinet, the expedition's hydro-cartographer and the acount of the voyage written by Peron.
    Additional Titles

    Secondary title: New Holland: New South Wales. Navigation

    Primary title: Nouvelle-Hollande, Nouvelle Galles du Sud, Navigation

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