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By water to Parramatta: with a view of the Western Mountains taken from the windmill

Date: 1789
Dimensions:
Overall: 178 x 248 mm
Medium: Copper engraving on paper.
Credit Line: ANMM Collection
Classification:Art
Object Name: Engraving
Object No: 00000875
Place Manufactured:England

User Terms

    Description
    This view of Sydney Harbour was taken from Observatory Hill. The copper engraving was first published in David Collins' book 'An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales'.

    The western mountains referred to in the title are the Blue Mountains - part of the Great Dividing Range which hindered exploration of inland regions until successfully crossed in 1813.

    The first operating windmill in the colony was established on what is now Observatory Hill in 1797. This windmill was followed by a watermill near Parramatta in the early 1800s, and by 1809 Sydney had 7 windmills functioning in the area.
    SignificanceThis engraving provides a view of the landscape surrounding Sydney in the early years of settlement and illustrates some of the physical obstacles that faced the colony.
    HistoryBritish settlement of Parramatta began in late 1788 by Arthur Phillip primarily as a site for agriculture. Wheat was first successfully grown in the area by James Ruse in 1789 and the wool industry was pioneered by John Macarthur at Elizabeth Farm.

    Windmills were an important tool in the colony during the early years of settlement. The power they generated was able to grind wheat for flour and was therefore essential to maintain the food supply. Steam engines only became available in the colony in the 1830s.
    Additional Titles

    Primary title: By water to Parramatta: with a view of the Western Mountains taken from the windmill

    Web title: By water to Parramatta: with a view of the Western Mountains taken from the windmill

    Related People
    Engraver: James Heath

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