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Certificate of apprenticeship for Heinz Lippmann

Date: 6 February 1939
Credit Line: ANMM Collection Gift from Heinz Lippmann
Classification:Ephemera
Object Name: Certificate
Object No: ANMS0219[001]

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    Description
    A certificate ('bescheinigung') of apprenticeship for Heinz Israel Lippmann, issued in Berlin on the 6 February, 1939. The certificate states that he has been enrolled at the "private Jewish establishment for craft and commercial education emigrating Jews of place in Berlin" since 1 June, 1937.
    It was through this technical school, run by the Jewish organisation, O.R.T. that Henry Lippmann was able to migrate to England from Germany in 1939.
    In July 1940 Mr Lippmann was interned and taken to Australia aboard HMT DUNERA. After he was released in February 1942, Lippmann decided to stay in Australia and joined the 8th Employment Company of the Australian Military Forces.


    SignificanceThis certificate is part of a collection of personal papers that provide an insight into an important episode in the history of Australian migration this century.
    They are primary sources in the DUNERA case in which the ship, HMT DUNERA, transported German and Austrian Jewish refugees from England to Australia in 1940. On arrival in Australia these men were interned in a camp at Hay and later at Orange in New South Wales then moved toTatura in Victoria.
    HistoryHenry Lippmann was "a DUNERA boy". He was born in 1921 in Berlin and was sent by his parents to a Technical School run by the Jewish worldwide organisation,O.R.T. where he studied electrical engineering. The organisation arranged for him to travel to England in 1939 at the age of 17. Henry spent time at the O.R.T.school in Leeds in England before being interned by the British government as a "C-class Enemy Alien".
    Henry volunteered to go to Canada after hearing that the English were sending "C-class Enemy Aliens" overseas. It was not until HMT DUNERA reached Cape Town in South Africa that Henry realised he was going to Australia. Conditions were appalling on board HMT DUNERA. The internees were crowded below deck in an unhygienic environment with little exercise allowed (only ten minutes a day of outdoor air was permitted) and food quality deteriorating as time passed. Body and luggage searches were regularly carried out resulting in the loss of possessions. Refugees aboard told of regular beatings from guards, inadequate facilities and medical treatment.
    On arrival at Darling Harbour (Sydney) on the 6 September 1940, Henry was sent by train and interned in Hay, New South Wales and then transferred to the camp at Tatura in Victoria. In 1941 Henry was released. He decided to stay in Australia and joined the 8th Employment Company of the Australian Army. He then moved to Sydney where he was discharged from the army.

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